One reason is that because human behaviour is extremely complex, it is always possible to look at it from different perspectives. I am a student in the masteral degree…i am having hard time in formulating a title …our title defense was scheduled september 9..i have proposed almost a dozen titles now but my thesis professor rejected it …i dont know why……my title is CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT ON PUPIL’S BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF GRADE V PUPILS….may i ask for your help to reword or restate my title…how is it measured….i am open to suggestions and comments thank you and more power…i will love to hear some thots from youGod bless, Dear Marlyn, I missed your comment as I had been too busy the past days. ). If you mean that you should include the two variables in your thesis title, that will be desirable. For example, the fundamental attribution error is committed more frequently in North America than in East Asia (Miyamoto & Kitayama, 2002)[2]. I have been trying all these years to come out with research proposal for a doctoral programme with great difficulty. Thanks. Simpler, more parsimonious theories organize phenomena more efficiently than more complex, less parsimonious theories. For example, the educator might provide a general phenomenon or topic (say: spiders, gravity, or poverty) and ask students to do research to identify a problem. Mertiso’s tips best adsense alternative, Thanks so much sir,I have really learned a lot about literature review. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. A precise explanation or interpretation of a specific phenomenon; expressed in terms of equations, computer programs, or biological structures and processes. 18 examples: When integrated along all possible paths, with a phase factor proportional to… 13. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant, who contrasted it with the noumenon, which cannot be directly observed. Experimental studies done some thousand of years ago prove that unrefined apparatus and limited knowledge, we were already trying to answer the questions of the universe. What are Examples of Variables in Research? I have compiled and enhanced my research-related articles in the e-book below titled “How to Write a Thesis in the Information Age.” It’s a straightforward guide that will get you started in your research. 'thing appearing to view'; plural phenomena) is "an observable fact or event." You may find this article useful:, pls sir i need your help on my assignment What then are variables, and how do you use variables in your research? 14- Anabolism . Sometimes a replication of a study produces results that differ from the results of the initial study. Notice that this theory—which has come to be called drive theory—provides an explanation of both social facilitation and social inhibition that goes beyond the phenomena themselves by including concepts such as “arousal” and “dominant response,” along with processes such as the effect of arousal on the dominant response. content. Social patterns refer to trends and people’s behavior. Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. Descriptive research can be explained as a statement of affairs as they are at present with the researcher having no control over variable. Determine differences between variables. I will strengthen your understanding by providing examples of phenomena and their corresponding variables below. Identify the participants and research site . A very small percentage of therapists are responsible for diagnosing the vast majority of cases of DID. (In other words, you need to identify three variables—A, B, and C. And you will focus on two hypotheses: A affects B, and B affects C.) Do not use a hypothesis that was covered in the readings or in class. Ethnog… In the course of writing your thesis, one of the first terms that you encounter is the word variable. My 3 variables would be… 3. I really appreciate your efforts and your way of explaining it. Knowing and understanding these assets and liabilities can help you decide if this research plan is the one for you. Even the effects that have been established are often culturally dependent. Consider, for example, Zajonc’s theory of social facilitation and social inhibition. Does a good dissertation always need quantitative variables? This new direction will lead researchers to reevaluate the theory and either revise it or abandon it for a new one. Should a dissertation always have independent and dependent variables? Thank you for visiting and reading the articles. I’m glad that somehow the articles helped foster understanding. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches are used to investigate some phenomenon of interest in various fields of studies. I salute your work, before I was have no enough knowledge about variable I think I was claimed from my lecturers, but the real meaning I was in the mid night. Thanks a lot you have simplified my understanding of variables in research. This theory implies that rather than encouraging patients to act out multiple personalities, treatment should involve discouraging them from doing this role playing (Lilienfeld & Lynn, 2003)[5]. Laws imply that the phenomenon is universally true and rarely in psychology can you not find an exception. I need guidance on Variables and like framework. A, can be an explanation that relies on just a few key concepts—although this term more commonly refers to a prediction about a new phenomenon based on a theory (see, Section 4.3 “Using Theories in Psychological Research”. Individual researchers usually replicate their own studies before publishing them. He proposed that being watched by others while performing a task creates a general state of physiological arousal, which increases the likelihood of the dominant (most likely) response. If so, what is it about cutting that has this effect? 3.2 Research Philosophy A research philosophy is a belief about the way in which data about a phenomenon should be gathered, analysed and used. Please help.. hi help me my research is about personnel empowerment and local government quality service what will be my conceptual frame work ??? To write research questions that integrate the variables of the study, you should be able to define what is a variable.If this term is already quite familiar to you, and you are confident in your understanding, you may read the rest of … rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays.. Great post. For example, an alternative theory of dissociative identity disorder—the posttraumatic theory—holds that alters are created unconsciously by the patient as a means of coping with sexual abuse or some other traumatic experience. The multistore model of human memory efficiently summarizes many important phenomena: the limited capacity and short retention time of information that is attended to but not rehearsed, the importance of rehearsing information for long-term retention, the serial-position effect, and so on. I’m happy to know my article helped you in your research venture. The research question will be the foundation of your synthesis and from it your research team will identify 2-5 possible search concepts. gud pm sir Patrick.. do IV and DV should be in a title. This initial difficulty about variables becomes much more confusing when you encounter the phrases “dependent variable” and “independent variable” as you go deeper in studying this vital concept of research as well as statistics. Phenomenon 1: Climate change. Simple educate me. In my survey questionnaire I have three questions about it. be untested, but it can also be extensively tested, well supported, and accepted as an accurate description of the world by the scientific community. For example, although McMillan and Chavis’ (1986) describe their four dimensions of sense of community as a theory, these dimensions are outlined with the primary goal of advancing community psychologists’ ability to operationalize and explore this phenomenon of interest. Variable correlations or differences are then determined. am writing a proposal for the factors that influence adoption of improved agricultural practices on cocoa production This is not a study employing numbers but rather exploring the experiences of African children in Thai schools. Let’s discover things for a better world. I, with all my experience in research, would not put the explanation in such a plain, understandable way. Narrow it down further into something measurable. The best example of this phenomenon was fever, which exacted the greatest death toll. That’s too broad Salamarh, what do you want to find out in the study? Notice that a theory does not have to be accurate to serve this purpose. Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T. J., Boykin, A. W., Brody, N., Ceci,…Urbina, S. (1996). The positive effect of expressive writing on health and the negative effect of cell phone usage on driving ability are examples of phenomena that have been replicated many times by many different researchers. [Blog Post]. This study is based on a Grounded Theory approach. The more often people have been exposed to a stimulus, the more they like it—even when the stimulus is presented subliminally. to come up with a solution. Psychological phenomena are those manifested in human behaviors and responses. May i know the IV and DV of the other examples you have given? If you know about these kinds of variables then you are free to share them here. Outside of science, referring to an idea as a theory often implies that it is untested—perhaps no more than a wild guess. For example, the educator might provide a general phenomenon or topic (say: spiders, gravity, or poverty) and ask students to do research to identify a problem. Your well simplified work has given me insight in my research approach. In its popular format, descriptive research is used to describe characteristics and/or behaviour of sample population. Assume the existence of a fictitious convenience store looking to improve its patronage. the remaining section I care for such info much. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. There are now several lines of evidence that support the sociocognitive model over the post-traumatic model (Lilienfeld & Lynn, 2003[6]). So for highly practiced tasks, being watched increases the tendency to make correct responses, but for relatively unpracticed tasks, being watched increases the tendency to make incorrect responses. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant, who contrasted it with the noumenon, which cannot be directly observed. Each short chapter ends with practical exercises for the beginning researcher as well as students who want to complete their thesis. In addition to providing accurate explanations or interpretations, scientific theories have three basic purposes. Thank you…. What if there are more than the independent and dependent variable? phenomenon example sentences. The chapter will discuss in detail the various stages of developing the methodology of the current study. Stimuli presented near the beginning and end of a list are remembered better than stimuli presented in the middle. Please help!! Atheoretical framework can be as broad as a perspective or a specific as a model, but it is the context applied to understanding a phenomenon.Adding to the confusion is the fact that researchers often use these terms interchangeably. What a relief! Conducting a study again, either exactly as was originally conducted or with modifications, to ensure that it will produce the same results. Qualitative research methods. But I still have a problem identifying my variables,my topic is;The constraints to social civic engagement in Communities in my country. Thank you so much. A principle which holds that a theory should include only as many concepts as are necessary to explain or interpret the phenomena of interest. Thus theories are good or useful to the extent that they organize more phenomena with greater clarity and efficiency. Either way stay up the nice high quality writing, it is Every qualitative study has some philosophical underpinning which helps in designing research processes. what will be my conceptual framework. Is this a paid subject or did you customize it yourself? Examples of Descriptive Research. At this point, I believe that the concept of the variable is now clear to you. Which of the above examples of variables are the independent and the dependent variables? Phenomenology is commonly understood in either of two ways: as adisciplinary field in philosophy, or as a movement in the history ofphilosophy.The discipline of phenomenology may be defined initially as thestudy of structures of experience, or consciousness. Of course, if the theory is inaccurate, the answers to the new questions will tend to be inconsistent with the theory. The two methodologies of research, known as qualitative and quantitative research, explore topics with different objectives. It can be untested, but it can also be extensively tested, well supported, and accepted as an accurate description of the world by the scientific community. 2. The clarity in your post is just great and i could Dear Dr. Oyugi, you’re right. For example, if a researcher wanted to know the experiences of African primary students in Thai schools. Well, that seems okay Enomen. On the contrary, the evidence for this theory is overwhelmingly positive and nearly all scientists accept its basic assumptions as accurate. You can see in the last part of the above article an explanation about dependent and independent variables. The reason this is an example of a scientific phenomenon is that you can see and feel it. For me you simplified it when you said Independent variable is the cause, I just say thank you. For example: IT might be knowledge of databases, and supply chain is time in moving the product. A research philosophy is a belief about the way in which data about a phenomenon should be gathered, analysed and used. Qualitative research is often used when numbers are not able to shed light on the research problem. I need help with this research topic ‘Media production and production in America’ I’m finding it difficult in identifying the concept, construct and also I’m trying to develop three research questions and also find the three null hypothesis related to the topic. Longitudinal research enables you to explore a phenomenon in its environment and context over a long period of time. It would not be considered wrong to refer to the drive theory as the drive model or even the drive hypothesis. 109–142). How? Kindly help me to clarify my topic and its valuables . Since your conceptual framework reflects your thesis, you need to state your argument as your guide in your study. All this information helps the organization researching to make informed business decisions. 16 examples: These two men are victims of an inexplicable biological phenomenon. Some others are that dissociative identity disorder (formerly called multiple personality disorder) increased greatly in prevalence during the late 20th century, people perform better on easy tasks when they are being watched by others (and worse on difficult tasks), and people recall items presented at the beginning and end of a list better than items presented in the middle. Both theories go beyond the phenomena to be interpreted, but they do so by proposing somewhat different underlying processes. Thank you so much. Scientists generally follow the principle of. Hello Participant observation concludes that most visitors are men. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. For example, in addition to the drive theory of social facilitation and social inhibition, there is another theory that explains them in terms of a construct called “evaluation apprehension”—anxiety about being evaluated by the audience. million and please carry on the gratifying work. A case study enables you to research a phenomenon in its environment and context by focusing either on a particular or small group of research objects. easy to understand,this article can help me a lot for my report about conceptual framework and research study. 'thing appearing to view'; plural phenomena) is "an observable fact or event." Replication means conducting a study again—either exactly as it was originally conducted or with modifications—to be sure that it produces the same results. We had to start somewhere. Also, avoid hypotheses you know (for certain) are true or hypotheses that are necessarily true. Please Sir, when writing the dependent and independent variables should it be in a table form ? Keep in mind, however, that the most important distinction remains that between observations and interpretations. Determine differences between variables. Explain why the social pattern interests you, and how it can be seen as a variable. Identify a third variable that you think is a possible consequence of your first variable and why you think it might be a consequence. The difference occurs in the methods of carrying out this investigation. Phenomena. Examples of Phenomenon in a sen The four-year-old boy was considered a phenomenon because he could play the piano like a master pianist.  Every seventy-six years, the phenomenon known as Halley’s Comet comes so close to Earth it can be seen without any technological aids.  I have chosen Of course, scientific theories are meant to provide accurate explanations or interpretations of phenomena. A careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. grab your feed to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thank you and best of luck. In essence, it is an established answer to a research question. Is exam score a trend or behavior? More grease to your elbow. Your question is unclear to me Biyaminu. At a point I wanted to give up on the PhD programme. Examples of observable phenomenon in a sentence, how to use it. How will you know that one variable may cause the other to behave in a certain way? But if your school requires that the independent and dependent variables be written in table form, I see no problem with that. The fact that there are multiple theories for any set of phenomena does not mean that any theory is as good as any other or that it is impossible to know whether a theory provides an accurate explanation or interpretation. A theory is a coherent explanation or interpretation of one or more phenomena Amount of hours devoted to studying Qualitative Central Question Script: What is (the central phenomenon) of/for (participants) at/in (research site)? So for highly practiced tasks, being watched increases the tendency to make correct responses, but for relatively unpracticed tasks, being watched increases the tendency to make incorrect responses. 1. Moreover, “descriptive studies may be characterised as simply the attempt to determine, describe or identify what is, while analytical research attempts to establish why it is that way or how it came to be”. Fine with your permission let me to Thank you Ogah. Therefore, physicians based their knowledge on the huma… When asked what their research was about, for example, Burger and his colleagues could have said something like the following: It’s about the fact that we’re more likely to comply with requests from people we know [the phenomenon].